By 2028, a world-class Army that is a source of national pride.
Years of Spanish rule, which dragged on to almost three centuries made the Filipinos restive. They were soon clamoring for reforms and an end to oppressive friar rule. In 1896, Andres Bonifacio founded the Katipunan to prepare his band of freedom loving Filipinos for armed revolt. The Katipunan formed the nucleus of the Revolutionary Philippine Army.
Almost a year after the outbreak of hostilities between the Katipuneros and the Spanish troops, the Philippine Revolutionary Government and its Army were born on March 22, 1897 at Tejeros, San Francisco de Malabon in Cavite. General Artemio Ricarte was named Captain General of the Ejercito en la Republica de las Islas Filipinas or the revolutionary Philippine Army. This date marks the founding day of the modern day Philippine Army.
On June 12, 1898, General Emilio Aguinaldo declared Philippine Independence from Spain and formed the first Philippine Republic, in which he sat as its President. The Filipino troops were to enjoy only a brief respite from combat when American forces came in to establish rule in the islands by virtue of theTreaty of Paris, which Spain co-signed with America on 10 December 1898. The treaty ceded the Philippines to the United States.
On February 4, 1899, the Filipino-American War erupted. Due to the superiority of American arms, the Filipinos fell from one position to another until they were forced to disband. Even after the official cessation of hostilities and as the Americans have established government in 1901, the Filipino revolutionaries continued their struggle for freedom. Between that time until 1935, the revolutionary army lost many of its cohorts in sporadic engagements with American troops, but never lost its cause.
With the establishment of the Philippine Commonwealth on 15 November 1935, President Manuel Luis Quezon sought the services of General Douglas McArthur to evolve a national defense plan. Accordingly, Commonwealth Act No.1, popularly known as the National Defense Act was enacted into law, which paved the way to the birth of the new Philippine Army, which was only to be under the coat of the US Army. With an annual appropriation of 16 million pesos, it trained new Filipino members in defending the nation and protecting its people.
When World War II broke out in 1941, two regular and ten reserve divisions of the Philippine Army undertook the defense of the Philippines. These divisions were incorporated into the United States Armed Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) under the command of General Douglas McArthur.
After the war, four military areas were activated to take the place of military districts. The Armed Forces was reorganized which gave birth to the four major services of the Armed Forces. Headquarters National Defense Forces was renamed General Headquarters Armed Forces of the Philippines.
In the early fifties and the mid-sixties, the Philippine government extended a helping hand to war-torn countries as part of its commitment as member of the United Nations. The army spared five battalions which comprised the Philippine Expeditionary Forces to Korea (PEFTOK) to fulfill its pledge to uphold the struggle for democracy. The Philippine Civic Action Group to Vietnam (PhilCAGV) was sent to South Vietnam on a mission of peace, where army engineers helped build communities and army doctors and nurses provided medical services to the people.
Under the leadership of Brigadier General Leoncio S. Tan the Philippine Army established its separate headquarters on 10 July 1957. The onset of the sixties ushered an expansion of the army's roles, which include participation in the socio-economic programs of the country, among others.
To achieve greater flexibility and effectiveness, infantry divisions took the place of the military areas in the seventies. On 21 September 1972, the Martial Law era began. During the decade, military operations supported by civic action blocked the escalation of insurgency.
The onset of the eighties saw the birth of the Special Operations Team (SOT) strategy which is aimed to isolate the insurgents from the civilian population, and dismantle the communist political organizations, neutralizing and denying them control of barangays all over the country.
Aside from counterinsurgency campaigns, the SOT plays an additional role in national development. Together with local government officials, SOT identifies problems and helps provide assistance in areas that lack needed vital facilities and service like roads, bridges, schools, health and sanitation, livelihood, etc. Because of its effectiveness in quelling insurgency, this strategy is being adopted not only by the Army but by the entire Armed Forces of the Philippines.
The Philippine Army, therefore, is not only the protector of the Filipino people but also a partner in nation building, true to its slogan, "At your service, across the land".
Philippine Army Seal
SAGISAG NG HUKBONG KATIHAN NG PILIPINAS (Philippine Army Seal)
|The gold and white circular discs outlined in black symbolize the unity, the strength, and the determination of the Filipino Nation to achieve the fulfilment of its aspirations and to seek its rightful place with honor among the family of nations|
|The modified pentagonal shield with a gold border signifies defense – the Army’s primary and ultimate mission. As an instrument of defense, it seeks to contain not only the external aggressors but also strives to destroy internal threats and subversion.|
|The red triangular emblem with a white border signifying the Army’s foremost preoccupation with peace, is the historic coat of arms of the Philippine Revolutionary Army. It rest on a field of green symbolic of the verdant land over which it exerts its influence|
|The eight-rayed golden sun represents the first eight provinces that revolted against Spain.|
|The three five-pointed gold stars represent the major island groupings: Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao.|
ANCIENT LETTER ''K''
|At the center of the eight-rayed sun is an ancient Filipino script letter K” which stands for the Katipunan Army raised by Andres Bonifacio in the initial struggles of Philippine independence. The letter “K” is depicted in Baybayin script and in green color.|
HUKBONG KATIHAN NG PILIPINAS
|The official name of the Philippine Army in Filipino is HUKBONG KATIHAN NG PILIPINAS which is highlighted in black and arranged in circular motif. It is emblazoned in gold circular disc and in Baybayin inspired style of lettering font|
|RED||Symbolizes the valor commonly displayed and the blood unselfishly shed by our people in the defense of the Nation against internal and external threats to our national integrity and honor.|
|WHITE||Symbolizes the pure and lofty ideals of our people which serve to inspire in the PA soldier the dedication, perseverance, and duty to God and country.|
|GOLD||Symbolizes the fervor of our people’s hopes and aspirations for the Nation, the sincerity of purpose, and the intensity with which the pursuit of these goals is made.|
|GREEN||Symbolizes the verdant land and its abundant resources which necessitate the Army’s cherished goals to defend and protect it in order that progress and contentment in an atmosphere of peace, serenity and brotherhood for all shall be achieved.|
|BLACK||Symbolizes the inherent power of our Army forces to conduct operations on land.|
To organize, train, equip, deploy and sustain ground forces in support of the AFP mission.